Nicotinamide: The key molecule in Energy Production
Nicotinamide, coupled with the nucleotide adenine, is a molecule involved in reduction-oxidation reactions in metabolic pathways. It acts as a hydrogen carrier which in turn, produces ATP – the energy currency of the cell. ATP is required by cells in performing important functions required for survival. Moreover, it is also plays a vital role in detoxifying cells from free radicals and toxic chemicals, as well as in DNA repair processes. Nicotinamide is obtained from dietary sources rich in Vitamin B3 such as lean meat, eggs, dairy and poultry products, mushrooms and nuts.It is also included in pre-workout formulas in order to maximize cellular fuels thereby optimizing biochemical reactions. Not to confuse with Niacin (another form of Vitamin B3 involved in lowering cholesterol), Nicotinamide contains an amide functional group instead of carboxylic acid (functional group of Niacin).
What does Nicotinamide look like in Chemistry?
Let’s Get Building!
Using your Student Molecular Set from Duluth Labs let’s create Nicotinamide! You’ll need:
- 6 Carbon Atoms
- 2 Nitrogen Atoms
- 1 Oxygen Atoms
- 6 Hydrogen Atoms
- 6 Small connectors (compact small bonds for hydrogen)
- 5 Medium Connectors
- 8 Long connectors
- Molecular Tool (for Disassembly)
Put aside all the atoms and connectors needed.
Let’s Start Building With Our Pyridine Portion!
Note: Let’s begin with Carbon 4! We start building this portion of the molecule in a counterclockwise direction.
1. Get one carbon atom (Carbon 4)then attach another carbon atom (Carbon 5)to it using 1 medium connector. Add a hydrogen atom on both carbons (Carbon 4 and Carbon 5) using 2 small connectors.
2. Attach another carbon (Carbon 6) below Carbon 5using 2 long connectors. Place a hydrogen atom on Carbon 6 using a small connector.
3. Then, get anitrogen atom(Nitrogen 1)and attach this to Carbon 6 using 1 medium connector.
4. Add another carbon atom (Carbon 2) then attach this to Nitrogenusing 2 long connectors. Place a hydrogen atom on Carbon 2 using a small connector.
5. Get another carbon atom (Carbon 3) then attach this to Carbon 2using 1 medium connector.
6. Join Carbon 3 and carbon 4 together using 2 long connectors.
Yay! We've just built our Pyridine Portion!
Note: Let’s now continue adding the amide functional group on the Carbon at Position 3.
1. Get one Carbon atom then attach this to Carbon 3 of the pyridine portion using a medium connector.
2. Add an Oxygen atom on this carbonusing 2 long connectors.
3. Then, attach a Nitrogen atom on this carbon using a medium connector. Place2 hydrogen atomsonthenitrogen using 2 small connectors